I use Lightroom Classic 13.0.1 on a Windows 11 desktop and sometimes I wind up with metadata conflicts for unknown reasons.
The only options I have are to choose whether I want metadata in the catalog or in the file to be used. I have no idea whether I made an update that didn't get written to the file, or if some other process on my computer changed the file.
We need a third option, "show metadata difference" that would show me which field(s) have actually changed so I can make an informed decision about whether the catalog or the image file is the most current.
"sometimes I wind up with metadata conflicts for unknown reasons."
LR's metadata status has been buggy for many years. One cause seems to be when Adobe adds new Develop settings or changes the internal catalog representation of Develop settings.
So if @C.Cella's suggestion to use the Compare Photo Edits plugin doesn't illuminate what's happening, and if you're sure you haven't edited the files' metadata in an external app, use the Metadata browser's Metadata Status column to identify files whose