I've been having this problem since forever. (My PS version is 23.4.1 but it doen't matter)
If Layer 1 is locked, why can I Alt+Click+Drag it to duplicate it? (with move tool selected)
This should not happen because Layer 1 is locked, right? And it doesn't matter if Auto-select is checked or not. Normally you can't do anything to a locked layer except this!? Why? Locked layer should be locked and frozen until I unlock it.
Also you can merge (ctrl+E) multiple locked layers which also wrong.
It is annoying since if I have multiple layers above Layer 1 and I misclick those layers, Layer 1 gets selected and duplicated...
Unfortunately this is a well known "bug". There are threads here that are 10 years old on the same topic and nothing has been done about it, because Adobe insists that the duplication of a locked layer doesn't fall under the locked layer restrictions...
Yeah I have noticed. this recently too as I was teaching Photoshop and how the lock tool works! But it wasnt locking the Layer! Sometimes it worked, and sometimes it. did not. Pretty sure it is a bug. You're not alone!
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