I've been dealing with this for a few months, and I have no idea what's causing it. Basically, without warning, Photoshop will draw random lines on its own, and it'll last for about 3 seconds or so, and there's nothing I can do to stop it until it's finished. You can see in the screenshot it's straight lines that seem to go in random directions. This happens at irregular intervals. Sometimes I can work for a whole day without the glitch. Sometimes it will happen a few times a day.
At first I assumed it was the Xencelabs tablet I recently bought, and I've been in contact with their tech support. We wondered if it might be EMI (electro-magnetic interference) due to the USB hub, power strips, and other electronics in my studio. They even sent me a replacement unit. But today, the glitch happened even when the Xencelabs tablet and Quick Keys remote control units weren't turned on (although the wireless dongle was plugged in), when I was only using a mouse. I have no idea if the wireless dongle on its own could cause a glitch like that, and now I'm starting to think it's something else. I only thought it was Xencelabs because the glitch started happening after I bought the tablet and quick keys, but it was just a coincidence because the glitches only happened when I was working in Photoshop, and if I'm working in Photoshop, I'm usually using a tablet.
First, try disabling GPU in the Preferences (Performance tab). Any better? If turning OFF GPU works, it's a GPU bug and you need to contact the manufacturer or find out if there's an updated driver for it. Also see: https://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/kb/acr-gpu-faq.html
Author “Color Management for Photographers" & "Photoshop CC Color Management/pluralsight"