I was having a similar problem except that the artboards were turning gray whenever I'd interact with a different monitor. I went into the Graphics Processor Settings (Photoshop -> Preferences -> Performance -> Advanced Settings... button). I remembered that when I first came here (before I had the artboard issue) the 30 Bit Display option wasn't selected. I had been playing with some of the settings when I first installed Photoshop and I changed that option.
I unchecked the option, restarted Photoshop and the problem went away. 🙂 Granted it's only been a few minutes now, but it was happening consistently before and now not at all. Hopefully, that helps.