Simply replacing the extracted images with the originals (in FIle Explorer) would seem like a simple process, but unfortunately they are different File-types : JPG and DNG. LrC would show the JPGs in the catalog as 'Missing'.
The only answer I can think of would be to Import the DNGs to the Catalog (thus you have both JPGs and DNGs in the catalog) then use a Plugin to synchronze the edits from the extracted JPGs to the original DNGs- (Later delete the JPGs)
Syncomatic – Lightroom Solutions
Regards. My System: Lr-Classic 12.3 Photoshop 24.5, ACR 15.3.1, Lightroom 6.3.1, Lr-iOS 8.0.8, Bridge 13.0.3, Windows-11.