There was a similar discussion about a Macbook M1 Air, with a workaround / solution. The solution involved using "Presets" in "System Prefs > Displays". I don't see a way to make that applicable to the Mac M1 Mini.
I have confirmed that the M1 Mini will display a 30 bit (10-bit per channel) image in many applications. Indeed, it will display a 10 bit grayscale gradient in 30 bit mode correctly in Photoshop 2020. However, nothing I have thought of and/or tried has been able to make the 30 bit option available in Photoshop 2021 or 2022.