I would like to export 1 layer/object that has multiple color options, made with fill layers, to PNG's in all of the seperate colors. So in this case, these are logos that should be in 15 different colors and I need 15 different PNG's of the same size.
Here below how I would prepare the layers with a simplified setup with 2 colors.
to keep it short, layer comps are a way to "record states of your layer panel" and you can then take these different states and save each iteration. Recording in effect what is visible in your layer stack.
A good example of different layer comps would be
state 1: logo1 with red overlay (2 layers) state 2: logo 1 with yellow overlay (2 layers)
state 3 :logo 3 with red overlay. (2 layers)
You got 3 different states. To record those different states, you need to make visible only what you need in the layer stack, and click on the layer comp panel to create a new layer comp (a new state).
You can then export these different states as sepaparate files using the File>Export> layer comps to files
see an example for a commercial project of mine
each of those layer comp entry represent a set of visible layers (50 in total, 2 visible each time) : 1 is a smart object layer containing some text and another containing the label colours (these were labels placed on a mock up). For each layer comp, there was only 2 layers showing among the vast number of layers in the layer stack.