The Windows update most likely installed a defective monitor profile from the monitor manufacturer. These profiles are often defective out of the box.
As troubleshooting, and as a possible temporary fix, try setting the monitor profile to sRGB.
If this fixes the issue, you should calibrate the monitor with a hardware calibrator.
This will also create and install a custom monitor profile that will be more accurate than sRGB.
With Photoshop closed, press the Windows key + R, type colorcpl in the box and press Enter.
Add the sRGB profile and set it as default.