Holding down the CTRL/Cmnd key while holding the CTI in one spot gives you a one-frame audio preview. Dragging it down the timeline skips through the frames as fast as you drag it. The advantage of the one-frame preview is that you can clearly hear what the audio is going to sound like when you cut on that frame. You get the same thing in Premiere Pro. In Audition, scrubbing works on the sample rate, not the frame rate so the previews are smoother. You can also cut on a single sample in Audition. If you need that kind of accuracy you should be using audition.
If you want smaller samples or even larger ones, you can temporarily change the frame rate of the composition. This will even give you greater accuracy in setting the in or out point of an audio or even video layer's out point. When you change the frame rate back, the cut will not move. You just have to make sure you don't end up with a half-frame of no video by carefully overlapping cuts.
That brings up another point. After Effects is not and never was a video editing app. If you have some very fine cutting of Audio or even video to do for more than one or two shots, you should be doing the work in Premiere Pro or Audition. My comps are almost always one shot. If there is more than one it is because I need to do a transition between shots that I can't do in any other way. If I'm adding a bunch of sound effects to an AE comp I usually just add one placeholder and fine-tune the audio in Premiere Pro because the tools are much better.